CASTIGLIONE
Present on both the Ionian and the Tyrrhenian side of Calabria, late ripening, in early October.
In the vineyard
Bunch medium-large, medium length, conical in shape, with fairly close wings.
Berry medium or medium-large size, from oval to egg-shape. Skin of medium thickness but very resistant, very bloomy, blue-black, tending to violet.
Suitability for viticulture
Medium-high productivity, prefers not over-spread training systems. Good resistance to climatic adversities and good tolerance of the principal cryptogamic diseases.
Wine
Intense ruby-red colour. Dry, fresh, pleasantly tannic, acidulous, medium body.

GAGLIOPPO
One of the most cultivated native grapes in Calabria, it is the principal black-grape vine in the Cirò area, present more or less everywhere in the region, more common on the Ionian side. Medium-late ripening, from the last third of September to the first ten days of October.
In the vineyard
Bunch medium and long, conical shape with pointed end and often more sparse. In general a well-developed wing, sometimes long-stalked. Can be sparse to medium-compact.
Berry medium-small, oval, fairly thick skin, very bloomy, black-blue or black-violet in colour; pulp of medium consistency.
Suitability for viticulture
Low-spread training shapes (bush, palmette or espalier with horizontal spurred cordon). Rustic vine, resistant to frost and soil salinity, poor resistance to drought. Less consistent tolerance towards parasite diseases, particularly of peronospora (downy mildew) and oidium.
Wine
Production of red and rosé table wines and aged reds. In dry years and in sandy soils the tannicity of the grape skin is accentuated.

GRECO BIANCO
One of the principal native white-grape vines in Calabria. It is cultivated principally along the Ionian coast (as well as Cirò, the Locride and Bivongi areas). Ripens in late September.
In the vineyard
Bunch medium-large and long, sparse, conical shaped, green colour with pinkish shades in the dorsal part exposed to the sun.
Berry medium, oval and short, very thick skin, yellow in colour, from greenish to straw tending to amber, pulp of medium consistency.
Suitability for viticulture
Low-spread training shapes (bush, or espalier with horizontal spurred cordon), good tolerance of climatic adversities, drought and the principal plant diseases.
Wine
Full straw yellow, good alcoholicity and total acidity levels, the flavour is fresh, slightly tannic, with a moderate and pleasant bitter after-taste.

GRECO DI BIANCO
Corresponds with Malvasia of Lipari, in Messina province and the Aeolian islands, and with Malvasia of Sardinia, in the areas of Cagliari and Bosa. Ripens in mid- and late August.
In the vineyard
Bunch of large size, long, sparse, elongated cone shape, exhibits one to three poorly developed wings.
Berry medium-small and oval. Skin of medium thickness, substantial, not very bloomy, straw yellow colour; pulp of weak consistency, with hints of Moscato.
Suitability for viticulture
Low-spread training shapes, medium tolerance to climatic adversities. Very sensitive to cold and drought, susceptible to oidium and vine moth.
Wine
The grapes are used only for vinification for dessert passito wines. Very well suited to drying on the plant, in the sun on trellises or in air-conditioned rooms.

GRECO NERO
Name used for defining varieties that differentiate according to the area where present, mainly in the provinces of Catanzaro and Crotone. Average ripening, around mid-September.
In the vineyard
Bunch medium or large, conical-shaped, short, rare presence of a short wing, medium compactness.
Berry medium or small, egg-shaped, with bloomy skin, thin but sound, black in colour, often with bluish reflections due to the presence of the bloom.
Suitability for viticulture
Low-spread training shape, such as bush.
Wine
Ruby-red colour, agreeably fruity bouquet and harmonious, full and captivating taste.

GUARNACCIA BIANCA
Found sporadically in the province of Cosenza, especially around Saracena. Medium-ripening, late September.
In the vineyard
Bunch medium, medium length, sometimes elongated, conical shape with rounded end.
Berry small, round to short oval, very thick skin, greenish grey to yellowish grey; pulp of weak consistency, agreeable flavour.
Suitability for viticulture
Medium-high vigoria. Productivity limited because of generally small bunch size. Used for the production of Moscato di Saracena.
Wine
Intense straw-yellow colour, elegant and delicate bouquet, full, mellow taste.

MAGLIOCCO DOLCE
Late-ripening vine, in early to mid-October; common in the provinces of Cosenza and Catanzaro, where it used to be more important than Gaglioppo. At present to be found mixed with other local varieties in the old vineyards of the provinces of Crotone and Catanzaro, in Cosenza province it is also cultivated as a single varietal.
In the vineyard
Bunch medium to medium small in size, fairly long, conical shaped, generally compact.
Berry medium and short oval; very thick skin, quite bloomy, blue-black in colour. The pulp is of weak consistency, with an agreeable flavour.
Suitability for viticulture
Low-spread training shape, such as bush. Well suited to dry, warm climates; rustic vine not exhibiting particular sensitivity to adversities.
Wine
Ruby red, harmonious, mellow with good alcoholicity, lends itself to medium ageing, unlike robust Magliocco Canino.

MAGLIOCCO CANINO
Cultivated especially on the Tyrrhenian side, in the area of Savuto and Lamezia. It has been retrieved also in the area of Scilla, where it has taken the name of Nocera. It is late-ripening, in early October.
In the vineyard
Bunch medium to medium-large size, conical composite shape with well-developed wings, sparse.
Berry medium-small and oval; skin very thick, quite bloomy, blue-black colour, pulp of weak consistency.
Suitability for viticulture
Highly adaptable, on condition that the soils are not too dry, lends itself to various training shapes. No particular sensitivity to adversities and plant disease, except for a poor resistance to drought.
Wine
Garnet-red with violet reflections, with an agreeable alcohol content, good acidity and medium structure.

GUARDAVALLE
White grape found principally in the province of Reggio Calabria. There are no clear indications as to the etymology of the name, although the most common explanation associates it with the town of the same name, just inland from the Ionian coast. Late ripening in the first half of October.
In the vineyard
Bunch medium, conical-shaped; winged, of medium compactness, sometimes also sparse.
Berry medium size, round, with a skin slightly bloomy, substantial, of medium thickness and greenish-yellow in colour, which can take on an amber tint when fully ripe.
Wine
Very accentuated straw-yellow colour, with golden reflections; intense, elegant bouquets; the structure is broad, supported by a good acidity and a slight tannic hint.

MANTONICO BIANCO
Cultivated in the Locride, along the Ionian coast, particularly in the vicinity of Bianco and Casignara. It is a hardy, late-ripening vine (early October).
In the vineyard
Bunch of medium size, medium length, conical shape, compact, often with several short, compact wings.
Berry medium or medium-small, long oval. The skin is of medium thickness, very resistant, with a good bloom and yellow-green in colour; pulp of weak consistency. Suitability for viticulture
Excellent resistance to winter cold and summer drought, prefers dry, well-exposed soils; medium tolerance of peronospora (downy mildew) and oidium (powdery mildew). The vigoria is medium-high, suitable for espalier training with short pruning.
Wine
Full yellow colour, with a certain fineness of taste, slightly tannic, accentuated acidity, fruity and with good possibilities of ageing. The grapes adapt very well to drying on the plant or, after harvest, in the sun or in conditioned rooms.

MARSIGLIANA NERA
Present in the provinces of Catanzaro and Cosenza, particularly on the Tyrrhenian side, around the towns of Lamezia Terme, Pianopoli and San Pietro a Maida. It forms a high percentage of DOP Lamezia. The grape harvest usually takes place in the first two weeks of September.
In the vineyard
Bunch medium-small, conical-cylindrical and averagely sparse.
Berry medium-large, round, with skin of medium thickness, substantial, fairly bloomy, blue-black in colour.
Wine
Gives a wine to be drunk young, with an intense red colour and violet reflections. The alcohol content is generally rather high, the structure full, the acid vein marked, a mellow and pleasantly tannic taste.

NERELLO
Cultivated especially in the Locride, it takes on numerous specifications (for example Carbonaru, Paesano, Nostrale). In some localities of Calabria, with the name Nerello also Sangiovese is indicated. Medium-ripening grape, in mid-September.
In the vineyard
Bunch medium-large, averagely elongated, conical in shape with a number of drooping wings and a pointed extremity, sparse or compact.
Berry medium size, short oval; skin of medium thickness, good bloom, colour from blue to dark red/violet. The pulp has a poor consistency.
Suitability for viticulture
Present in particular in hilly or lower mountain areas; found head-trained in old vineyards, while in modern ones the espalier is used. Very sensitive to peronospora and, in some conditions, to mould, acid rot and drought.

NOCERA
Cultivation recommended in all the provinces of Calabria (excluding Cosenza province) and in the provinces of Siracusa and Messina. Average-ripening grape, the harvest is effected between the third and fourth weeks of September.
In the vineyard
Bunch of medium size, pyramid-shaped, long, with a wing, medium compact or sparse.
Berry medium, oval or oval-egg-shaped, with slightly bloomy skin, average consistency and bluish-black colour.
Suitability for viticulture
Good vigour, prefers low-spread training shapes (bush) and short pruning; poor resistance to all cryptogamic diseases.
Wine
When fully ripe the grape is very sweet, rich in good acidity. The wines are rich in colour, robust, decidedly alcoholic and sustained by an acid core that ensures good evolution in medium-long times.

PECORELLO
Cultivated prevalently in the province of Cosenza, in particular in the area of the Donnici DOP. This is a medium-ripening grape, early to mid-September.
In the vineyard
Bunch of medium-large size, long, conical-shaped, sometimes with rounded end, exhibits a number of wings, well-developed and little separated. Neither sparse nor compact.
Berry medium-small, short oval. Very thick skin, very bloomy, yellowish green colour, amber yellow if well exposed. Pulp with good consistency, sweet and pleasant-tasting.
Suitability for viticulture
Suited to low-spread training shapes (bush or simple horizontal spurred cordon). Has a good tolerance for climatic adversities and the principal plant diseases, but is very sensitive to drought and soil salinity.

PRUNESTA
The name may be derived from the Latin bruma and is justified by the abundance of bloom. Others believe the name comes from bumastos, meaning udder. The area of strongest presence is on the Tyrrhenian Calabrian coast, in particular in the province of Reggio Calabria. Rarely used in single varietal, ripens around mid-September.
In the vineyard
Bunch medium size, pyramid or cone-shaped, sometimes with wings, medium compactness or sparse.
Berry large, oval, with bloomy skin of medium thickness, and blue-violet colour.
Suitability for viticulture
Suited to low-spread training shapes such as bush with short pruning; excellent resistance to cryptogamic diseases.
Wine
Intense ruby red, with wine bouquet, medium alcoholicity, well-bodied, fairly tannic. Generally vinified with other local grapes.

 

 

 

Sources:

euvite.it
– catalogoviti.politicheagricole.it
– Guida ai vitigni d’Italia, Slow Food Editore, Bra (CN) 2005